The Psoas Muscle: Unraveling Its Importance and Role in Movement

by | Aug 11, 2023

Activating the Core: Targeted Exercises for Strengthening the Psoas Muscle

In the world of anatomy, there are certain muscles that play a significant role in human movement and function. One such muscle is the psoas muscle, often overlooked but incredibly vital to our everyday activities. In this blog post, we will delve into the fascinating world of the psoas muscle, exploring its anatomy, function, common issues, and exercises to maintain its health.

Anatomy of the Psoas Muscle

The psoas muscle, formally known as the iliopsoas, is a deep-seated muscle located in the lumbar region of the spine. It consists of two major components: the psoas major and the iliacus muscle. The psoas major originates from the lumbar vertebrae and extends down to the lesser trochanter of the femur, while the iliacus muscle arises from the iliac fossa of the pelvis. Together, they merge into a single tendon and insert onto the femur.

Function and Importance

The psoas muscle is responsible for several key functions related to movement and stability. Its primary role is hip flexion, which is crucial for activities such as walking, running, and climbing stairs. Additionally, the psoas muscle contributes to stabilizing the lumbar spine and maintaining efficient posture, aiding in preventing low back pain and injury.

Relationship to Core Stability

The psoas muscle is closely connected to the concept of core stability. It forms an integral part of the deep stabilizing system of the lumbo-pelvic region, along with other muscles such as the transversus abdominis, multifidus, and pelvic floor muscles. These muscles work together to provide stability and support to the spine, optimizing overall movement efficiency and reducing the risk of injury.

Common Issues and Imbalances

Given its role in various movements and stability, dysfunction or imbalances in this important muscle can lead to a range of issues. Prolonged sitting and sedentary lifestyles can result in a shortened psoas muscle, which may result in lower back pain, hip pain, and compromised movement patterns. Conversely, weakness or inhibition of the psoas can lead to instability and compensatory movement patterns, increasing the risk of injury.

One common issue associated with the psoas muscle is called psoas syndrome. Psoas syndrome refers to a condition characterized by pain and dysfunction caused by the tightening or irritation of the psoas muscle. Symptoms may include lower back pain, hip pain, groin pain, and difficulty with hip flexion. Factors that can contribute to psoas syndrome include excessive sitting, poor posture, repetitive activities, and muscular imbalances. A physical therapist, chiropractor or even a massage therapist are perfectly suited to understand the nature of these symptoms and create a plan to address them accordingly.

Exercises to Maintain Psoas Health

Maintaining the health and flexibility of the psoas muscle is crucial for optimal movement and overall well-being. Here are a few evidence-based exercises to help improve the flexibility and strength of the psoas muscle:

1. Psoas Stretch: Kneel on one knee while maintaining an upright posture. Extend the opposite leg behind you. Tilt the pelvis posteriorly by tucking your bum slightly. Gently shift your weight forward until you feel a stretch in the front of the hip. Hold for 60 seconds and repeat on the other side. When looking to gain flexibility 1-2 minute holds done daily produce best results with stretching. When looking for immediate, albeit short term, change in mobility 30 seconds will suffice.

2. Supine Psoas Release: Lie on your back with a firm ball placed beneath your lower back targeting the area around the psoas muscle. Gradually roll up and down for 30-60 seconds as required. Pause and apply gentle pressure on any tender spots; taking slow deep breaths into the ball.

3. Standing Weighted Leg Raises: Standing with one foot in the handle of a kettlebell, slowly raise the bell as if marching, engaging the psoas muscle. Lower it back down with control. Perform repetitions to within 2 reps of technical fatigue and repeat 3- 4 sets on each leg.

4. Psoas Activation Exercises: Engaging and strengthening the psoas muscle is equally important. Exercises such as supine marching, where you lie on your back and lift one knee at a time towards your chest, can help activate and strengthen the psoas. This can be augmented if performed in a bridge. Another exercise is the hanging leg raise, where you hang from a pull-up bar and lift your legs towards your chest, focusing on engaging the psoas muscle.

Incorporating these exercises into your fitness routine can help maintain the health and flexibility of the psoas muscle, supporting proper movement patterns and reducing the risk of injury.


Understanding the anatomy, importance, and function of the psoas muscle can provide valuable insights into optimizing movement patterns and preventing potential issues. The psoas muscle, with its role in hip flexion and core stability, plays a vital role in our daily activities and overall well-being.

Prolonged sitting and sedentary lifestyles can lead to tightness and imbalances in the psoas muscle, causing lower back pain, hip pain, and compromised movement patterns. By incorporating targeted exercises, such as psoas stretches and strengthening exercises, into your fitness routine, you can maintain the health and flexibility of this essential muscle.

Remember to listen to your body and consult with a healthcare professional or a qualified fitness trainer if you experience persistent pain or have any specific concerns. With a balanced and well-functioning psoas muscle, you can enhance your movement efficiency, reduce the risk of injury, and enjoy a healthier, more active lifestyle.

The Psoas Muscle FAQ

1. What is the psoas muscle?

The psoas muscle, also known as the iliopsoas muscle, is a large muscle group located in the pelvic region. It is made up of two muscles: the psoas major and the iliacus. These muscles work together to flex the hip joint and stabilize the spine.

2. What is the role of the psoas muscle in movement?

The psoas muscle plays a crucial role in movement as it is responsible for flexing the hip joint and lifting the thigh towards the torso. It also helps stabilize the spine and maintain proper alignment during walking, running, and other movements.

3. Can a tight psoas muscle cause back pain?

Yes, a tight psoas muscle can contribute to back pain. When the psoas muscle is tight, it can pull on the lower back, causing an anterior pelvic tilt and limit movement variability. This can result in lower back pain and discomfort.

4. How can I determine if my psoas muscle is tight?

If you experience lower back pain or hip pain, it could be an indication of a tight psoas muscle. Another sign of tightness is limited range of motion in the hip joint. You may also feel a deep ache or tightness in the front of your hip or thigh.

5. What are some ways to release the psoas muscle?

There are several techniques that can help release the psoas muscle. Stretching exercises, such as lunges or kneeling hip flexor stretches, can lengthen and stretch the muscle. Massage therapy, performed by a licensed massage therapist, can also be beneficial in releasing tension in the psoas muscle.

6. How does a tight psoas muscle affect the pelvic floor?

A tight psoas muscle can contribute to pelvic pain and dysfunction. The psoas muscle attaches to the front of the lumbar spine and the inside of the pelvis, and when it is tight, can limit lumbar movement and compromise pelvic floor efficiency, causing tension and discomfort.

7. Can a tight psoas muscle cause knee pain?

Yes, a tightened psoas muscle can cause knee pain. When the psoas muscle is tight, it can alter the alignment of the pelvis and put additional stress on the knee joint, resulting in pain and discomfort.


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